Jun 09, 2019
In the early days of the primitive society, the form of the tomb was very simple. Only a pit was dug in the ground. The tomb was generally small and could only accommodate the body, innocent, and the body was not wrapped with special things. In the late Neolithic period, in the late Dawenkou culture, a small number of tombs were large, and the inside of the pit was built with natural wood along the four walls, and the upper part was covered with natural wood. With the development of social history, the structure of the tomb has also undergone great changes. There are three main types: the first type of Mudu Palace: After entering the class society, there are strict class and rank differences in the tomb system, and the ruling class mausoleum has a very large scale.
In the late stage of the primitive society, there was a phenomenon of polarization between the rich and the poor. For example, in the No. 10 tomb of the late Wenkou culture, there are complicated burial tools. The deceased wears exquisite jade ornaments, and is buried with jade shovel, ivory and nearly 100 pieces of exquisite pottery.
After entering the class society, the polarization between the rich and the poor is even more disparate. The funerary objects of the tombs of the kings and nobles are extremely rich and exquisite, including bronzes, jade, lacquerware, and bones. The Shang Dynasty also popularized the human rights system.
About the beginning of the late Yin and early Zhou, the tombs began to appear on the tomb. After the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the graves were sealed and the shape was like a hill. In particular, the closure of the imperial tombs, the project is large, and the development has changed significantly. The following describes the sealing forms of several imperial tombs:
The first type is "on the square." The practice is to build on the tomb, using a layer of soil to make it a small square cone, because the upper part is a small square flat top, as if the square cone cut off the top. Therefore, "Fang Shang". The tomb of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum in Linyi, Shaanxi Province, looks like a mountain, and its form is a typical square. The tombs of the imperial tombs of the Han Dynasty were also in the form of squares.
The second type is "mountain for the mountain." That is to say, using the hills as the tomb of the mausoleum, the Emperor's Mausoleum of the Tang Dynasty adopted the form of a mountain. Tang Zhaoling was built with Jiuyi Mountain as a mausoleum and a mountain.
The third "Baocheng Baoding". That is to build a tall brick city above the underground palace, adding soil to the brick city, making it a dome above the city wall. This kind of city wall is called "Baocheng", and the high rounded grave is called "Baoding". Before Baocheng, there is also a square city platform that protrudes forward. The square building on the stage is called “Fangcheng Minglou”, and the emperor or queen’s nickname is erected inside the building. Both the Emperor and the Houyi of the Ming and Qing Dynasties used this kind of tomb made up of the Fangcheng Minglou in Baoding.